Turtles & Tortoises must have been the source of the “Find the difference” game, because they are two animals that most people can’t distinguish between.
Turtles & tortoises are both reptiles which belong to the Testudines family of animals – animals which developed a bony/cartilaginous layer on their backs, which cover their bodies as a shield. They belong to the same group as crocodiles and snakes.
A lot of times, many aspiring pet owners don’t know how to differentiate between a turtle and a tortoise and end up caring for them the wrong way. They give them the wrong food and expose them to the wrong living conditions. This results in many animal deaths. Those owners who try to do right by their pets by releasing them back into the wild, release turtles & tortoises in environments they actually aren’t supposed to, leading to more deaths.
So, how can we stop this vicious cycle? By learning more about them of course. Here are the top 5 differences between turtles & tortoises:
Turtles can swim, tortoises can’t. That’s why turtles have webbed feet (sea turtles have full-fledged flippers) and tortoises have feet that have toes (like that of an elephant) which they use to walk & climb.
With the exception of the Sonoran mud turtles and Box turtles, all other turtle species have a streamlined and flat shell. All tortoises have deep, domed shells. The streamlined shells of turtles are highly-aerodynamic and reduce drag in the water. Tortoises never needed to evolve a flat shell because they never needed to swim.
Turtles live on an average for 80 years. Tortoises for 150 years. There have been instances where turtles and tortoises in healthy captive conditions lived well beyond their natural lifespans, some reaching an estimated 250 years of age.
Turtles are omnivores and like to eat a mix of plants and meat like larvae, insects, small fish and jellyfish. Tortoises are mostly herbivores and love their green leaves, with only a handful of species choosing to eat meat.
Female turtles come on shore only to lay eggs and will return to the water immediately after. Female tortoises on the other hand, often stay a few days protecting the nest and will return to their territories much later. If you’ve seen a turtle/tortoise lay her eggs near your property and you want to do your bit to give these eggs a chance to hatch (and not get eaten by predators), read this really-informative article by the Tortoise Protection Group here.
Okay, here’s a fun fact that can turn everything you’ve just learnt on its head.
Scientifically speaking, there’s no distinct species called “tortoise”!
Okay, before you drop your device in shock, let me just clarify that there’s more to it.
So, according to taxonomy (the science of classification), all animals that have shells which cover their body completely are called “turtles”. What this means is that all tortoises are in reality a type of turtle.
Let’s break it down further. The species called “turtles” includes – tortoises, terrapins (yep, that’s a new one) and turtles.
Tortoises are turtles which live exclusively on land.
Terrapins are turtles whose shells resemble those of sea turtles (only smaller), but whose legs look like those on tortoises and they swim in freshwater.
Turtles are actually sea-turtles which live in the ocean and do not remain long on land.
Basically, all tortoises and terrapins are turtles, but all turtles are not tortoises and terrapins.
Pretty fun to sing isn’t it? And a wonderful sight it would be too. Especially in the wild.
Nature has her fair share of spectacularly beautiful animals and plants. Super colourful and oh-so-inviting, your only wish would be to touch the creature and feel it under your fingers. But do so and that may be the last thing you ever do.
If there’s one thing you need to remember about the wild, it’s that Colours = Poison.
Say hello to Aposematism
What do they call an animal that uses bright colours to ward-off danger? An aposematic animal of course. Aposematism is the biological process of using colours as signals to repel predators.
Animals brighten their skin pigments or even change their colours as warning to other animals not to cross their path. Plants, flowers, fungi and seeds use bright colours which indicate high levels of toxicity (which animals learn indicate ‘Don’t Eat’).
Aposematic animals & plants work in weird, but wonderful ways. While some are genuinely poisonous and use unique colours to their advantage, others are non-poisonous and mimic their more dangerous cousins to confuse and scare-off their predators, who otherwise may attack them.
But here you have below the list of 5 animals who really are poisonous and who use colour as a warning sign in the wild. Remember, they may look enchanting and you may want to touch them or pet them. But trust me, it’s better you stay away.
Now, without further ado, here are our top pics for pretty but potent animals in the wild:
1) Amazonian Poison Dart Frog
This one is most certainly the poster boy for ‘colorful but potent’ category in the wild (hence the feature image ;D)
Poison dart frogs are one of the most toxic creatures on land. Dart frogs don’t make their own poisons, but store the poison of the insects and smaller animals they eat. They then process these poisons and combine them to make a very potent toxin…something which can be severely painful for humans.
Local Amazonian tribes use the tree frog’s poison to coat their darts, which they use to hunt monkeys and birds. The most toxic of all Amazonian tree frogs is Phyllobates terribilis.
The Monarch Butterfly and the Pipevine Swallowtail store and use their prey’s toxin as a defence mechanism when they are older. Birds know they can be deadly to eat and avoid them. But other than a handful of these winged critters, most butterflies and moths aren’t poisonous. But the same can’t be said of their offspring.
Many caterpillars have a poisonous coating on their body, which protects them from being eaten by predators when they are young & helpless. While some poisons only knock the predator out for a few hours, others kill. A case in point is the formidable N’gwa or ‘Kaa caterpillar, which is found in Africa and whose toxin, according to researcher David Livingstone, which is a mixture of snake venom and plant toxin, has the capacity to kill an antelope.
3) Hooded Pitohui
Did you ever think a bird would be on this list?
The Hooded Pitohui, scientifically called Pitohui dichrous makes its home in the lush forests of New Guinea. The size of a dove, the Pitohui is the only documented poisonous bird in the world.
It’s toxin is a neurotoxin which numbs and paralyzes the victims. Luckily, this toxin isn’t fatal to humans, although the effects can take hours to wear-off. Sadly, the same isn’t true for its prey which are insects.
The Hooded Pitohui is part of a 3-species family, which also includes the Variable Pitohui and the Brown Pitohui, which are poisonous too, but not to the level of toxicity as their hooded cousin. The toxin has been found to be the outcome of the birds’ consumption of the choresine beetle. Such a nuisance is this bird to the surrounding tribes, it had been nicknamed Pitohui or ‘rubbish bird’ by the locals, which then was adopted as its official name.
Here’s an animal that can (and has) kill(ed) a human. Puffer fish are one of the most venomous animals on the planet and a single sting can bring down the mightiest of men. Often, human deaths occur when people unwittingly consume puffer fish organs in their meal. In animals though, its often a result of the puffer’s hunting or defence strategy.
The toxin the puffer fish contains is called Tetrodotoxin, which is a highly potent neurotoxin. The toxin slowly blocks all the neural transmitters in the body, essentially paralysing the victim, one organ at a time. At its peak, the Tetrodotoxin closes the wind pipe, slows down the lungs and stops the heart from working. Soon, the brain dies due to asphyxiation and lack of blood flow, killing the victim. Scientists believe Tetrodotoxin is 200 times more lethal than cyanide!
Want to know something even more unbelievable? The Japanese have a very special dish called Fugu which is made of puffer fish and is served during very special events. And guess what? Chefs deliberately leave a bit of the poison on the fish as an adrenaline-inducing treat for the guests.
5) Cone snails
They look harmless, inviting even. But pick one up and you’ll be stung faster than you can say ‘Oh no!’. Cone snails are another sea dweller that even humans need to beware of, if they don’t wish to be hurt or worse, dead.
Coming in a variety of shapes and sizes, cone snails contain a variety of neuro venoms (depending on the species) and can range in toxicity that’s akin to everything from a bee sting to a fatal hit. These snails shoot out harpoons, which are teeth-like organs which they use when hunting underwater. Any animal that has the misfortune of brushing against the cone snail will be the unfortunate recipient of the harpoon.
One species of cone snail that are extremely potent to humans is the Conus geographus or the Cigarette snail, whose toxin is said to be so quick-acting that victims have only time enough to smoke a small cigarette before dying.
Another gastropod that is poisonous – Nudibranch. You can read all about them here.
In the next article, we’ll focus on the Top 5 Most Colourful & Poisonous Plants and Fungi.
Biomimetics, also known as biomimicry, is a branch of science that uses nature as inspiration to find solutions for human problems. One of the biggest uses of Biomimetics is using animal and plant defensive strategies as the foundation for technology. Here are 5 amazing inventions that are inspired by the wild.
Sharkskin and catheters
Catheters are so important for a variety of medical treatments. But for long, doctors had to contend with dirty-catheter-induced infections in patients. To combat this problem, scientists looked towards sharks.
Sharks have tiny, V-shaped sharp bumps on their skins called dermal denticles which prevent algae, barnacles and slime from collecting on the shark. This keeps them clean, healthy and free from dermatological afflictions.
Using the sharkskin concept, a company called Sharklet Technologies developed a specialized plastic wrap with sharp bumps along the surface, which could be coated on catheters. Once coated, the wrap prevented the accumulation of germs and pus on the catheter, reducing the threat of infections in patients.
These denticles also reduce drag in shark and help them preserve energy when swimming. That’s why swimming costume and bodysuit manufacturers are using the same concept to create efficient sportswear for athletes.
Tardigrades and live vaccines
Suspended animation is a concept that’s enthralled us for decades. Movies like Space Odyssey and Avatar have further rejuvenated our interest in the concept. While humans are still experimenting with suspended animations, one animal has been living the concept for centuries.
Tardigrades are tiny, microscopic eight-legged animals that resemble arthropods. They’re called water bears or moss piglets because they spend their entire lives in water. If however, the water dehydrates, tardigrades find it difficult to survive. But instead of dying out, the tardigrades go into a state of suspended animation and remain in this state until their environment becomes re-hydrated. They do so by coating their DNA with a type of sugar-protein.
Scientists have used this concept to develop a method to preserve vaccines that expire in very short periods of time. They wrap the vaccines in sugar proteins similar to the ones used by tardigrades, putting them in a frozen state (without actually refrigerating them), which keeps them in perfect condition for up to 6 months. This ensures that the vaccines remain ‘live’ and ‘fresh’ much longer.
You can see tardigrades in the flesh here. If you want to find your own tardigrade, be sure to check out this video.
Butterflies and e-reader colour display
E-readers have renewed the habit of reading in many parts of the world. One of the best features that set e-readers apart from other technology is the colour display – light that enables users to read in extreme glare and in the dark.
It would come as a surprise to many that e-reader colour display has been inspired by butterflies. The iridescence of butterfly wings has inspired the development of the Mirasol, a full-colour e-reader that can churn out high-quality LCD-worthy colour pictures and text.
Butterfly wings shine in the sunlight by reflecting light off themselves, instead of absorbing and transmitting light. The display of the Marisol is based on this very feature. Sunlight is reflected off the screen ensuring that glare is reduced and the colours appear brighter and sharper; as opposed to in LCD screens where light is transmitted from within to produce colour.
Beetles and water harvesting
Found in the dry Namib desert in Africa, the Namib beetle is a master at collecting water. Living in an environment that faces a dire shortage of hydration, the beetle has evolved to keep itself hydrated even in the face of the most scorching summer.
The beetle’s shell is made of a flexible, waxy Teflon-like material which contains tiny grooves capable of trapping fog and condensing it into the water. The beetle indulges in what is known as ‘fog-basking’; where it turns it’s back towards the wind/fog and collects the fog in the grooves on its back. The fog condenses into water and is pushed-off the slippery waxy-back and directed towards the beetle’s mouth.
Following the beetle’s ingenious water collection methods, researchers have developed water collection nets and drinking bottles (Dew Bank Bottle) whose surface resembles the beetle’s grooved back. These technologies are used in the arid Chilean and Israeli desserts to collect water for indigenous residents.
Boxfish and automobiles
When Mercedes-Benz was designing its new state-of-the-art energy-efficient Bionic car, it derived its design inspiration from a small, uniquely shaped fish. The boxfish, found in the warm waters of the Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean, is a fish that has a honeycomb-like triangular/squarish-shaped body. But its shape isn’t the only thing unique to the boxfish. Its body is covered with bony plates called ‘carapace’ which reduce the drag underwater, while the fish swims.
This unique body structure with its almost snout-like mouth makes the boxfish extremely aerodynamic. Underwater currents move over the fish’s body, reducing turbulence and allowing it to move fast.
Mercedes-Benz applied the boxfish’s anatomical structure to their Bionic car which was quirky to look at and extremely aerodynamic. The car’s structure also made it extremely energy efficient. Today, the Bionic is one of the most talked-about cars.
There’s something intrinsically disturbing at the thought of an animal lying on a gurney, its insides cut open for the entire world to see. Something unsettling at the thought of seeing what they last ate for lunch or how their hearts look, underneath all that fur and feather. Welcome to the underbelly of science – animal autopsies, aka, necropsies.
Lolong, the largest saltwater crocodile in captivity, made his entry into the National Museum of Natural History, Manila in November 2011. Everything seemed to be going well at the outset. Staff who worked closely with Lolong was elated at how well he had adapted to life in captivity.
This is why everyone at the Museum had been shocked when in February 2013 Lolong was found dead in his enclosure. His necropsy (animal autopsy) report showed that he had succumbed to congestive heart failure. The report also revealed that he had lipidosis in his liver, had fungal pneumonia and suffered from kidney failure.
But the most significant results of the necropsy report had nothing to do with the illnesses. The reports helped researchers understand why exactly Lolong developed these problems and helped them find ways to prevent the same happening to other crocodilians.
What is a necropsy?
Autopsies are performed on people to identify the cause of death. Necropsies are autopsies performed on animals.
As with human autopsies, necropsies start with an external examination of the specimen’s body to understand if there are any indicators of the cause of death. Next, the body is dissected and each organ is examined systematically. Tissue samples are collected from all major organs, the stomach contents are checked to understand diet (and if the food was poisoned) and the blood is tested to understand what enzymes and chemicals are present and in what quantities.
In some animals, like whales and elephants, the skeleton is preserved and is sent to museums and veterinary schools for further study and display. Specimen organs may also be preserved for further tests.
3 Benefits of animal necropsies
Necropsies may sound gruesome and morbid (they certainly look so), but they have a number of benefits:
They help understand little-known creatures
In 2014 a completely-intact colossal squid was brought into the New Zealand Museum in Te Papa Tongarewa. This was just the second fully-intact colossal squid specimen in the world; a rare specimen and an even rarer opportunity to take a better look at these mysterious creatures.
A necropsy was conducted to understand their diet, mating habits and hunting strategies. The physiology of the squid was analyzed to understand if the animal had any special features which made it different from other squid species. The necropsy was also used to understand why the colossal squid grows to mammoth proportions and how it sustains itself in deep waters.
They help pinpoint and stop epidemics
2009 saw the Tasmanian Devil being listed on the Endangered Species list. This wasn’t due to poaching. Researchers discovered that the marsupials suffered from an unusual, highly-fatalistic and extremely contagious form of face cancer, called the Devil Facial Tumor Disease (DFTD). Cancerous tumors would form on the face and neck of the animals, leaving them physically unable to hunt or eat. A few months into the illness, the Tasmanian Devils died of starvation and weakness.
Necropsy reports showed how the cancerous tumors spread across the body and how they looked and felt structurally. Blood tests gave scientists insight into the chemical changes taking place in the bodies of afflicted animals. The reports helped conservationists plan the Devil Ark project, which sought to breed 1000 genetically clean Tasmanian Devils with an immune system that was pre-designed to recognize and eliminate the DFTD. Recent research shows how human cancer treatment drugs may be able to treat DFTD.
They help identify cases of medical negligence and malpractice
We assume that zoos are the right places for displaced and orphaned animals. But little do we know of the horrors that take place behind closed doors. The Cleveland Zoo found itself in the midst of controversy when the chief of veterinary services was caught asking members of the zoo community to support medical experimentation on animals.
This isn’t the only time zoo authorities have abused their power. Scarborough Sea Life Sanctuary was found having subscribed the Humboldt penguins in their care anti-depressants because of the birds’ inability to adapt to the zoo’s climate. While the authorities claim that the penguins are healthier and happier than before, if not used judiciously, this could lead to an overdose and then death.
Necropsies conducted by court-authorized pathologists help uncover the hidden truths behind these animal-friendly facades. They help act as evidentiary support in medico-legal cases.
The messy nature of necropsies can overshadow the good they do for animals, wild and captive. But, with awareness, we can begin to accept and appreciate their role in conservation.
Black cats lurking in the corner, bats screeching across rooftops and black widows spinning silken death traps…all symbols of witchcraft and the demonic. For ages, certain animals have been associated with the dark arts. From witchy cats to satanic bats, a lot of these critters have developed a bad reputation. But why is this so? Are these animals truly a mark of the devil or are they just misunderstood creatures? This Halloween, we find out the answer.
To the Dark and Beyond
Halloween has its roots in the Celtic festival of Samhain which was celebrated every year on November 1st. The night before the festival was a day associated with the undead. People believed that their loved ones would rise in the form of ghosts and haunt them. To keep these ghosts at bay, revelers would place food and wine offerings outside their doors as “treats”. They would don masks and costumes while going out, to “trick” the ghosts into thinking they were fellow-ghosts.
Soon, the traditions of Samhain were adopted by the Church and the festival was renamed as All Hallows Day; and the night before as Hallow’s Eve. Today, we know and celebrate this important day as Halloween.
Over time, inspired by books and movies, Halloween began to take on a darker image. References to witchcraft were written in into the (actually) harmless festival. Symbolism was drawn to exaggerate the “claims” of the presence of dark magic.
Considering that Halloween was a festival of the night, anything associated with the night soon began to assume a darker shape. As a consequence, animals that were predominantly nocturnal and predatory became symbols of Hallow’s Eve.
When it comes to animals with a dubious reputation, nothing beats the ones we have listed below. While some are traditionally associated with Halloween, others have such a fearsome and frightening reputation that they’ve made the cut. Take a look at some of the most dangerous and bloodthirsty beasts of the festival of the night:
Known as the harbinger of evil, the aye aye has a fearsome reputation. Although not traditionally associated with Halloween, they are feared by locals in Madagascar.
The world’s largest nocturnal primate (a lemur), aye ayes are extremely shy and docile creatures. They feed on berries and bugs and spend a major portion of their lives on trees and away from human eyes.
A fun fact about aye ayes – they are the only primate species which use echolocation to find prey.
Heard of blood-sucking vampires? I’m sure you have. But a fact that you may not know is that vampire bats are tiny and they seldom feed on anything other than cattle and pigs. As of today, there have been no recorded “attacks” on humans by vampire bats.
Another interesting fact about bats is that not all are bloodthirsty carnivores. Some are completely vegetarian and feed on berries!
Here’s a final tidbit about bats. Hammerhead bat males from Central Africa converge together during the mating season and produce a unique honking noise to attract females. They couple this with a unique dance and try to vie for the maiden’s attention.
The most iconic symbols of Halloween, black cats are regarded as the vehicles of witchcraft. In reality, black cats are regular cats that just happen to be black. The brilliant black of their fur, coupled with their stunning irises, make them look hypnotic.
In some places, black cats are believed to bring power, glory and love to the owner. Irrespective of whether this is true or not, black cats are some of the most gorgeous animals you can house as pets. They are as friendly as any cat can be and will fit perfectly into your household.
Additionally, recent research has shown that the gene that colors the cats’ fur black is the same which gives them disease-resistant power. In fact, these genes are similar to the genes that are HIV-resistant in humans. For all we know, black cats may be the key to finding a cure to HIV and Aids.
Wow…even the name is scary. The Bearded Ghoul, aka the demon stinger, is a species of fish that is part of the family which is home to the infamous stonefish. Lying buried in the sand, these fish launch a surprise attack like torpedoes and bring a swift end to crustaceans and fish alike. Their unique beard-like spines filled with toxic venom give them their name.
Residing in tropical reefs, the bearded ghoul is extremely venomous and is particularly dangerous to humans. With a potent mixture of hemotoxins and neurotoxins, this fish really does put the “sting” in “stinger”.
With “Halloween” in its name, you may think this reptile is harmless. While with its black body and orange stripes it certainly does look harmless, in reality, it isn’t. Found in rocky places, you can see this critter crawling amidst the craggy mountains of Central and South America. Highly dangerous to humans, they can give a nasty bite.
Want to know the worst part? Halloween snakes, just like other coral snakes, don’t have venom sacks at the base of their fangs. To inject venom, they latch on to their prey for a long time and slowly administer the poison. A bite from this creepy crawly will definitely leave you in a world of pain.
The good thing though, these snakes are highly reclusive and move away at the slightest indication of danger. So unless you’re actively looking for them, chances are you won’t find them.
Ah! The infamous black widow spider – the true Daughter of Danaus of the arthropod world. Much has been said about the black widow – how she kills her own mate after copulation and how a single bite can kill a grown man with ease. In reality…well, all of this is true (although human deaths happen rarely if treatment is immediate).
Spiders, with their secretive ways and beautiful webs have fascinated us for centuries. The sheer number of spider species (40,000!) coupled with their unique lifestyles and poisons of varying levels of toxicity have enthralled us for ages.
In reality, apart from a handful of spiders, not many are truly poisonous and none of them actively attack humans. But, just like other animals if threatened, they will hurt you.
Not really a venomous creature, the Suriname toad made this list for a completely different reason – a truly back-breaking achievement. Found in the waters in and around South America, this amphibian has a very unique way of giving birth.
While most toads and frogs lay eggs in the water, the Suriname toad retains its eggs in its body and grows them on its back. As the eggs develop into tadpoles, the toad’s back turns into a sort-of honeycomb-shaped maze. When the tadpoles hatch, they break open through these pockets, creating holes in the mother’s back.
The cycle repeats when the mother sheds her mottled skin and grows a new unmarked one that isn’t so hol(e)y.
Strange and Wondrous
The world of animals is filled with such unique and fascinating examples. While some facts about these creatures are clear as day, others are as dark as night. In retrospect, this is probably why the animals on this list and a few off them have secured such a formidable reputation.
Strange as these animals are, they are even more wondrous. Halloween’s special animals have “tricked” us with their unique abilities. At the same time, they have “treated” us to a spectacular display worthy of commemoration.